Friday, August 15, 2014

How to Reduce the Risk of Heart Disease

on this occasion we will give health articles on how to reduce the risk of heart disease, this article is a continuation of our previous post titled about know the fact about heart disease survived well just read something
Heart disease is a condition that causes the heart can not carry out their duties properly. These things, among others:

A weak heart muscle. It is a congenital abnormality. A weak heart muscle can not make people do excessive activity, due to the imposition of excessive cardiac performance will cause pain in the chest, and sometimes can cause the body to become visible bluish. People with weak heart muscle is easily passed out.
The gap between the right atrium and left the porch, because of incomplete formation of a separate layer between the second platform when the patient is still in the womb. This causes the blood clean and dirty blood mixed. This disease also makes people unable to perform strenuous activity, due to heavy activity almost certainly will make the patient's body turned blue and shortness of breath, although not cause pain in the chest. There are also variations of this disease, namely a person really only have one porch.
heart disease can be prevented by means of

1.Stop Smoking

2.Eat nutritious foods

3.Stop drinking alcohol

4.Physical activity

5.Ideal body weight

Stop Smoking:

Patients with CHD completely stop smoking and avoid second-hand smoke.

• Quitting smoking has major and immediate health benefits for all smokers.
• Take a detailed smoking history and choose smoking cessation therapy according to personal circumstances
and preferences.
• Strongly and repeatedly encourage the patient and their family to stop smoking. Brief, repeated,
non-judgmental advice about quitting smoking, provided by health professionals, is effective.2,3
However, multiple attempts to quit may be required.
• Refer the patient and their family to Quitline (13 QUIT). Also consider referring them to a specialised
smoking cessation program.
• Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can be used safely in smokers with stable cardiovascular disease
(CVD), but should be used with caution within two weeks of a myocardial infarction (MI) and in patients
with unstable angina, severe arrhythmias or a recent cerebrovascular event.2
• In all patients who continue to smoke, pharmacotherapy should be offered.4
• If pharmacotherapy is used, aim to combine it with behavioural and psychosocial support.

Eating nutritious food:

Patients with CHD establish and maintain healthy eating. This includes:

• limiting saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake to < 7% and trans fatty acid (tFA) intake to
< 1% of total energy intake6
• consuming 1 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and
> 2 g alpha linolenic acid (ALA) daily
• limiting salt intake to ≤4 g/day (1550 mg sodium).
• Encourage patients with CHD to adopt a healthy eating pattern that includes:
– mainly plant-based foods (e.g. fruits, vegetables, pulses and a wide selection of wholegrain foods)
– moderate amounts of reduced, low or no fat dairy products
– moderate amounts of lean unprocessed meats, poultry and fish
– moderate amounts of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats (e.g. olive oil, canola oil, reduced salt
• Encourage patients to replace SFA with monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids
• Advise patients to consume 2–3 g of phytosterols per day from margarine, breakfast cereal, reduced fat
yoghurt or reduced fat milk enriched with phytosterols (approximately 2–3 serves per day of these enriched
• Advise patients to consume 1 g of combined EPA and DHA per day through a combination of oily fish (2–3
150 g serves per week), fish oil capsules or liquid, and food and drinks enriched with marine n-3 PUFA.6
• Advise patients to consume > 2 g ALA per day by including canola- or soybean-based oils and margarine
spreads, seeds (especially linseeds), nuts (particularly walnuts), legumes (including soybeans), eggs and
green leafy vegetables.6
• Advise patients to reduce their salt intake by:
– choosing foods processed without salt; foods labelled ‘no added salt’ or ‘low salt’; or foods labelled
‘reduced salt’ when other options are unavailable
– avoiding high salt processed foods, salty snacks, high salt take-away foods, and adding salt during cooking
or at the table.4
• Consider referring the patient to a dietitian for support with dietary changes.

Stop Drinking Alcohol:

Patients with CHD consume a low-risk amount of alcohol.
Assess the patient’s medicines for potential interactions with alcohol and advise them as appropriate.
• Advise patients to drink no more than two standard drinks per day.7
• Women with high blood pressure or who are taking blood pressure medicine should drink no more than
one standard drink per day.4
• We do not recommend that patients who don’t drink start drinking, or that patients who drink increase their
alcohol intake.
• Brief interventions (e.g. advice, counselling) from a GP can be effective for non-dependent drinkers,
particularly men. If a person is alcohol dependent, withdrawal may be complicated. Consider referring the
patient to clinics/agencies with expertise in addiction

Physical activity:

Patients with CHD do at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity† physical activity on most, if not all, days
of the week (i.e. 150 minutes/week minimum). This amount can be accumulated in shorter bouts of 10
minutes’ duration and can be built up over time.
For patients with advanced CHD, the goal amount of physical activity may need to be reduced.
Any progress towards reaching the recommended goal is beneficial.

Assess the patient’s physical activity habits, together with the severity of disease and comorbidities.
Conditions that need physical activity to be deferred or clinical assessment undertaken include unstable
angina, uncontrolled or severe hypertension, severe aortic stenosis, uncontrolled diabetes, complicated
acute MI, uncontrolled heart failure, symptomatic hypotension, resting tachycardia or arrhythmias.
Discuss physical activity needs/capabilities/barriers and encourage the patient to be active. Give the patient written
guidelines for everyday physical activity tasks, including a light-to-moderate intensity walking program or equivalent.
Discuss these guidelines with the patient.
• Advise the patient to start with low-intensity physical activity and gradually increase duration over several weeks.
Gradually increase the intensity and variety of activities towards achieving specific goals. Note: it is not generally
recommended that patients with CHD do vigorous physical activity.
• Incidental physical activity is also important to keep patients moving as often, and in as many ways, as possible.
Encourage patients to sit less and move more throughout the day.
• Refer patients to a cardiac rehabilitation program and/or an exercise physiologist where appropriate and available.
• A structured rehabilitative physical activity program, supervised by qualified fitness personnel, should be
considered. Examples include the Heart Foundation’s Heartmoves program or Heart Foundation Walking groups.
The Heart Foundation’s Health Information Service can also give you and your patients more details.
• Regularly review the patient’s response to the physical activity regimen.

Healthy weight

Waist measurement:
• men < 94 cm
• women < 80 cm
Body mass index (BMI) range 18.5–24.9 kg/m2
Assess and continue to monitor waist circumference and BMI.
• BMI = weight (kg)/height (m)2.
• A BMI of < 25 kg/m2 may be unachievable for some patients. Focus on small realistic improvements.
Weight loss of 5–10% of the patient’s original weight can lead to improvements in cardiovascular and
metabolic health.10
• When recommending weight loss, give patients advice on how to reduce their kilojoule intake as well as
increasing their physical activity level. To lose weight, most patients will need to do more physical activity
than the 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity per day recommended for health benefits.4
• Some patients with stable CHD and a BMI > 35kg/m2 may be eligible for bariatric surgery if non-surgical
methods have been unsuccessful. Consider referring patients to obesity-metabolic services or bariatric
surgeons and make sure they are given ongoing support.11

Ditulis Oleh : Unknown // 5:24 AM